Some people, such as those with autoimmune thyroid disease and iodine deficiency, may experience adverse effects with iodine intakes considered safe for the general population [2,5]. Iodine deficiency is rare, but some people supplement their diets with iodine drops for a variety of health reasons, and this practice can be dangerous. In total, they can contain at least 0.02% and at most 1% iodine by mass. [, Abt E, Spungen J, Pouillot R, Gamalo-Siebers M, Wirtz M. Update on dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine from U.S. food and drug administration's total diet study: 2008-2012. Children are especially sensitive to the effects of iodine. Includes a variety of protein foods, including seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), nuts, seeds, and soy products. Answer: (C) Iodine The analysis of âNational Health and Nutrition Examination Surveysâ data of moderate to severe iodine deficiency is present now in a significant proportion of the U.S. population, with a clear increasing trend over the past 20 years, caused by reduced iodized table salt usage. If potassium iodide and iodine is swallowed, call a doctor or poison control center right away. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of iodine supplementation on thyroid function and child neurodevelopment in mildly-to-moderately iodine-deficient pregnant women. (b) Iodine (c) Sulphur (d) Nitrogen. Mountainous areas (e.g., Himalayas, Alps, and Andes regions) and river valleys prone to flooding (especially in South and Southeast Asia) are among the most iodine-deficient regions in the world . Cooper LF, Barber EM, Mitchell HS. Iodine numbers are often used to determine the amount of unsaturation in fatty acids. Uses of Non Metals [, Zimmermann MB. Long-term intakes above the UL increase the risk of adverse health effects. Fetal and infant development During the weaning period, infants not receiving iodine-containing complementary foods may also be at risk of iodine deficiency, even in countries with iodized salt programs [63,64]. B. Mercury. , The thyroid gland needs no more than 70 μg/day to synthesise the requisite daily amounts of T4 and T3. Chronic, severe iodine deficiency in utero causes cretinism, a condition characterized by intellectual disability, deaf mutism, motor spasticity, stunted growth, delayed sexual maturation, and other physical and neurological abnormalities . Many researchers, as well as the American Thyroid Association, stress the importance of continued iodine status monitoring among women of reproductive age [1,4,31,37,55,69,70]. It works by killing bacteria that can cause infections. These values, which vary by age and gender , include: Table 1 lists the current RDAs for iodine . Strength High tensile strength Low tensile strength Sodium and Potassium are metals but have low tensile strength.  Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable intellectual disability, a result that occurs primarily when babies or small children are rendered hypothyroidic by a lack of the element. Elemental iodine may also be used to treat iodine deficiency. An iodine solution is produced, but is dilute and must be concentrated. European Journal of Nutrition 2019;58:3047-58. Vegans, people with certain food allergies or lactose intolerance, and others who consume no or minimal amounts of these foods might not obtain sufficient amounts of iodine [48,49]. Updated: September 16, 2020 History of changes to this fact sheet, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements, My Dietary Supplement and Medicine Record, How To Evaluate Health Information on the Internet, NIH Consortium for Advancing Research on Botanical and Other Natural Products (CARBON) Program, Analytical Methods and Reference Materials (AMRM), Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID), Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS) Database, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), FDA and ODS-NIH Database for the Iodine Content of Common Foods, Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion, Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc, Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination. Many dietary supplements that contain iodine are listed in the Dietary Supplement Label Database from the National Institutes of Health . The FNB has established iodine ULs for food and supplement intakes (Table 3). In these technologies, which support the world's demand for acetic acid, hydroiodic acid converts the methanol feedstock into methyl iodide, which undergoes carbonylation. C. Sonorous. , Natural sources of dietary iodine include seafood, such as fish, seaweeds (such as kelp) and shellfish, dairy products and eggs so long as the animals received enough iodine, and plants grown on iodine-rich soil. What is iodine? Vegans and people who eat few or no dairy products, seafood, and eggs Suboptimal iodine status during pregnancy has also been observed in Australia . Unlike low dose iodine and high dose iodine, I do not believe that there is a time or place for the use of very high doses of iodine. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. [, Pearce EN, Bazrafshan HR, He X, Pino S, Braverman LE. Have your baby's thyroid checked if you are using potassium iodide and iodine and breast-feeding. Supplements containing kelp, a seaweed that contains iodine, are also available. 1993 May-Jun;10(3):315-323. The major form of thyroid hormone in the blood is thyroxine (T4), which has a longer half-life than T3. D. Lustre. Endocr Rev. Iodine-deficiency disorders. A. Seaweed (such as kelp, nori, kombu, and wakame) is one of the best food sources of iodine . [. [, WHO Secretariat, Andersson M, de Benoist B, Delange F, Zupan J. As an antiseptic it may be used on wounds that are wet or to disinfect the skin before surgery.. Common side effects when applied to the skin include irritation and discoloration. 2010 Aug;140(8):1489-1494. Other good sources include fish and other seafood, as well as eggs (see Table 2). Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. Iodine may have other physiological functions in the body as well. [, Vermiglio F, Lo Presti VP, Moleti M, Sidoti M, Tortorella G, Scaffidi G, Castagna MG, Mattina F, Violi MA, Crisà A, Artemisia A, Trimarchi F. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders in the offspring of mothers exposed to mild-moderate iodine deficiency: a possible novel iodine deficiency disorder in developed countries. Iron Zinc Copper Sulphur Aluminium Carbon magnesium Iodine Sample Appearance Shining/not shining Colour Non-metals are not sonorous, they do not produce a ringing sound. Hess SY. [, Kessler JH. Public Health Nutr. 2006 Oct;16(10):949-951. Dineva M, Fishpool H, Rayman MP, Mendis J, Bath SC. Iodine insufficiency remains a public health problem in 25 countries with a total population of about 683 million people . , The caliche was the main source of iodine in the 19th century and continues to be important today, replacing kelp (which is no longer an economically viable source), but in the late 20th century brines emerged as a comparable source. Iodine status is typically assessed using urinary iodine measurements. Breast milk contains iodine, although concentrations vary based on maternal iodine levels. , In the alternative, iodine may be produced from iodophors, which contain iodine complexed with a solubilizing agent (the iodide ion may be thought of loosely as the iodophor in triiodide water solutions). Nutrients 2018;10;100:1-20. Iodine-deficient soils produce crops that have low iodine levels. The condition seems to occur mainly in people over forty, and the risk appears higher when iodine deficiency is severe and the initial rise in iodine intake is high. 1990 Nov;90(11):1571-1581. For example, an analysis of 44 samples of nonfat milk found a range of 38 to 159 mcg per cup (with an average of 85 mcg/cup used for Table 2) . In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. Guidance. Development of databases on iodine in foods and dietary supplements. Altern Med Rev. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). This variability affects the iodine content of meat and animal products because of its impact on the iodine content of foods that the animals consume . Environ Sci Technol. (The typical daily dose of iodine for normal health is of order 100 micrograms; see "Dietary Intake" below.) This medicine may cause harm if swallowed. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. In the absence of sufficient iodine, TSH levels remain elevated, leading to goiter, an enlargement of the thyroid gland that reflects the body’s attempt to trap more iodine from the circulation and produce thyroid hormones. In humans, the ratio of T4 to T3 released into the blood is between 14:1 and 20:1. Use of iodine-containing dietary supplements remains low among women of reproductive age in the United States: NHANES 2011-2014. At treatment completion, 65% of the women receiving iodine reported decreased pain compared with 33% of women in the placebo group. This sharp decline in urinary iodine levels caused some concern during the late 1990s that the iodine sufficiency of the U.S. population could be at risk if this trend continued . do not have an increased risk for a contrast medium hypersensitivity. Currently, about 88% of households worldwide use iodized salt, but iodine insufficiency is still prevalent in certain regions, particularly Southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Eastern Europe [46,47]. Doses of this magnitude should only be used under the guidance of a physician . According to 2011–2014 NHANES data, 72.2% of pregnant woman took any dietary supplement, but only 17.8% of them took an iodine-containing product . Small amounts are needed for good health. D. Fluorine. Iodine is an element found in small amounts in your body. 2004 Dec;89(12):6054-6060. Published online ahead of print. Iodine, a trace mineral, is necessary for making thyroid hormones, healthy thyroid gland function, and for healthy growth and development. J Nutr 2011;141:2049-54. Carbon (graphite) and iodine are exceptions. Some research suggests that iodine supplementation might be helpful for fibrocystic breast disease, although a specific mechanism of action has not been established  and data are limited. [, Ghent WR, Eskin BA, Low DA, Hill LP.  Iodised salt is fortified with iodine in the form of sodium iodide. [, Abel MH, Brandlistuen RE, Caspersen IH, Aase H, Torheim LE, Meltzer HM, Brantsaeter AL. Very high doses of iodine would include doses that range from 25 mg (milligrams per day) all the way up to 50 mg (milligrams) per day. [, Aquaron R, Delange F, Marchal P, Lognoné V, Ninane L. Bioavailability of seaweed iodine in human beings. State the property of non-metals due to which phosphorus is kept in water. 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