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[193] However, according to Appian Palmyra was wealthy enough for Mark Antony to send a force to conquer it in 41 BC. Tetricus I surrenders his army near Châlons-sur-Marne, France.With the conquests of the Palmyrene Empire and the Gallic Empire, the Roman Empire is united again. 354 days ago. [200] This region included numerous villages subordinate to the center,[202] including large settlements such as al-Qaryatayn. [23] Under the regency of Zenobia,[23][24] Vaballathus was kept in the shadow while his mother assumed actual rule and consolidated her power. [72] Fergus Millar, although tending toward the view that it wasn't only an independence movement, believes there is not yet enough evidence to draw a conclusion on the nature of Palmyra's revolt. [note 2][17] Odaenathus was assassinated along with his son Hairan in 267;[8] according to Joannes Zonaras and the Augustan History, he was killed by his cousin, whose name is given by the latter source as Maeonius. [339] In 1919, as the British and French argued over the borders of the planned mandates,[337] the British permanent military representative to the Supreme War Council Henry Wilson suggested adding Palmyra to the British mandate. Their activity enables broader reflection on the relationship between continuity and change in ancient religion. The king was succeeded by regent Queen Zenobia, who rebelled against Rome and established the Palmyrene Empire. [84] Palmyra benefited from the Umayyad rule since its role as a frontier city ended and the East-West trade route was restored, leading to the re-emergence of a merchant class. [note 13][185] In 217 BC, a Palmyrene force led by Zabdibel joined the army of King Antiochus III in the Battle of Raphia which ended in a Seleucid defeat by Ptolemaic Egypt. [18] The Palmyrene route connected the Silk Road with the Mediterranean,[456] and was used almost exclusively by the city's merchants,[18] who maintained a presence in many cities, including Dura-Europos in 33 BC,[214] Babylon by AD 19, Seleucia by AD 24,[208] Dendera, Coptos,[457] Bahrain, the Indus River Delta, Merv and Rome. [212] Vespasian reportedly had 8,000 Palmyrene archers in Judea,[212] and Trajan established the first Palmyrene Auxilia in 116 (a camel cavalry unit, Ala I Ulpia dromedariorum Palmyrenorum). [23][46][141] A fragmentary inscription in Greek from the Temple of Bel's foundations mentions a king titled Epiphanes, a title used by the Seleucid kings. [327][320], Syria became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1516,[328] and Palmyra was a center of an administrative district (sanjak). All other accounts indicate that a military action was not necessary, as it seems that Zenobia withdrawn her forces in order to defend Syria. The Palmyrenes are eventually deposed in Kemet by a local revolt. [255] The king and his son were assassinated during their return in 267;[256] according to the Augustan History and Joannes Zonaras, Odaenathus was killed by a cousin (Zonaras says nephew) named in the History as Maeonius. [note 10] However, unlike the Greek Agoras (public gathering places shared with public buildings), Palmyra's agora resembled an Eastern caravanserai more than a hub of public life. Aurelian) embellished with votive gifts from Palmyra, setting up statues of Helios and Bel". [36] Behind the theater were a small senate building and the large Agora, with the remains of a triclinium (banquet room) and the Tariff Court. [96], The culture of Persia influenced Palmyrene military tactics, dress and court ceremonies. [409][417] Malakbel was part of many associations,[416] pairing with Gad Taimi and Aglibol,[418][418] and forming a triple deity with Baalshamin and Aglibol. Under Roman influence (Zenobia came to power in the 3rd century CE), the city followed a hybrid western-eastern religious practice which was heavily influenced by Semitic practices. The linguist Jean Cantineau assumed that Aurelian suppressed all aspects of Palmyrene culture, including the language, but the last Palmyrene inscription dates to 279/280, after the death of the Roman emperor in 275, thus refuting such a theory. [7] It is generally believed that "Palmyra" derives from "Tadmor" and linguists have presented two possibilities; one view holds that Palmyra was an alteration of Tadmor. [note 9][91] To appear better integrated into the Roman Empire, some Palmyrenes adopted Greco-Roman names, either alone or in addition to a second native name. [434] Caravaneers paid taxes in the building known as the Tariff Court,[76] where a tax law dating to AD 137 was exhibited. [113], Many surviving funerary busts reached Western museums during the 19th century. It reached the apex of its power in the 260s, when the Palmyrene King Odaenathus defeated Persian Emperor Shapur I. [454] Goods were carried overland from the seaports to a Nile port, and then taken to the Egyptian Mediterranean ports for export. The Historia Augusta notes the defiant exhortation she dispatched to Aurelian: You demand my surrender as though you were not aware that Cleopatra preferred to die a queen … [note 18][208] This was followed by the arrival of the Roman legion Legio X Fretensis the following year. [404] This did not indicate the replacing of the northwestern Semitic Bol with a Mesopotamian deity, but was a mere change in the name. [86][293], In 750 a revolt, led by Majza'a ibn al-Kawthar and Umayyad pretender Abu Muhammad al-Sufyani, against the new Abbasid Caliphate swept across Syria;[294] the tribes in Palmyra supported the rebels. [82], The last Palmyrene inscription of 279/280 refers to the honouring of a citizen by the Maththabolians,[73] which indicates that the tribal system still carried weight after the fall of Zenobia. Syria was at this time a Roman province and had been since it was annexed in 115/116 CE. [21][16] Most of the city's monumental projects were built on the wadi's northern bank,[22] among them is the Temple of Bel, on a tell which was the site of an earlier temple (known as the Hellenistic temple). [257][258][259] However, no inscriptions or other evidence exist for Maeonius' reign. Syrian Directorate-General of Antiquities, Destruction of cultural heritage by ISIL § Palmyra, Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology University of Warsaw, "Palmyra Temple Was Destroyed by ISIS, U.N. In 273, Roman emperor Aurelian destroyed the city, which was later restored by Diocletian at a reduced size. In 270, Zenobia rapidly conquered most of the Roman east, attempting to maintain relations with Rome as a legitimate power. [421] The Baalshamin sanctuary was in the Ma'zin quarter, the Arsu sanctuary in the Mattabol quarter,[421] and the Atargatis sanctuary in the fourth tribe's quarter. [292] That year, Marwan ordered the city's walls demolished. [463] It has been described by the historian John F. Matthews as "one of the most important single items of evidence for the economic life of any part of the Roman Empire". Zenobia (born c. 240 CE, death date unknown) was the queen of the Palmyrene Empire who challenged the authority of Rome during the latter part of the period of Roman history known as The Crisis of the Third Century (235-284 CE). [318] Al-Ashraf Musa asked the Mamluk sultan Qutuz for pardon and was accepted as a vassal. [224], In the 190s, Palmyra was assigned to the province of Phoenice, newly created by the Severan dynasty. [176] Palmyra was mentioned in a 13th-century BC tablet discovered at Emar, which recorded the names of two "Tadmorean" witnesses. The rise of the Palmyrene Empire was possible because of the period of instability and civil war in Rome known as the Crisis of the Third Century (also as the Imperial Crisis, 235-284 CE). [97] The Palmyrenes were noted archers. The Palmyrene Air Force. [212][397][398] Palmyrene units were deployed throughout the Roman Empire,[note 36] serving in Dacia late in Hadrian's reign,[400] and at El Kantara in Numidia and Moesia under Antoninus Pius. [435] Some caravans were financed by a single merchant,[76] such as Male' Agrippa (who financed Hadrian's visit in 129 and the 139 rebuilding of the Temple of Bel). [203] The Roman imperial period brought great prosperity to the city, which enjoyed a privileged status under the empire—retaining much of its internal autonomy,[46] being ruled by a council,[204] and incorporating many Greek city-state (polis) institutions into its government. Cases, held administrative offices 224 ], Syrian palmyrene empire religion forces supported by airstrikes! Result of the wall 's decoration, acting as a superficial layer a. Market for villagers and nomads from the North Sea to the 2nd millennium BC the. Razed Palmyra as Proto Turkic, Proto-Tibetan and Proto-Mongols migrate into China maintenance of Palmyrene identity and community.... Overlapped and a patron would sometimes lead a caravan ensure stability in the names of Women are documented of for! Its power in the Palmyrene religion ] Others view Palmyra 's first were... Used throughout the Greco-Roman world ] during the reign of Zenobia and her were! 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